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Wood , following a devastating earthquake in , which also caused considerable damage and demolition of various parts of the site.

Their drawings, etchings and lithographs brought a documentary and artistic value to these monuments. Despite these interests shown around the world, this site was not away from dilapidation. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, another American missionary, Samuel Jessup evoked the deplorable state in which the site was confronted: "Today, the ruthless destruction of the fallen columns and cornices goes on unchecked.

The modern town, with the wagon road of the Wali of Damascus, are using up all the movable fragments of the ancient temples.

The papal Greek bishop Basileus is now engaged in building a cathedral at the foot of the slope, south of the Hotel Arbid. He has bought the site of a small temple on the summit of the southern hill, and is rolling down the fluted columns and cubical blocks of the temple walls to be used in the modern edifice" Scientific interest for the safeguarding of the remains of the temple of Baalbek began to develop from this period. A British mission, "Palestine Exploration Fund", undertook a first mission in It has unfortunately been unsuccessful and without any meaningful result.

The real archaeological exploration of the site began with the German Mission from to , conducted after the visit of Kaiser Wilhelm II 13 and managed by the archaeologist Otto Puchstein.

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After the first World War and the installation of the French mandate in Lebanon, other missions followed and were successively supervised by C. Virolleaud, R. Dussaud, S. Ronzevalle, H. Seyrig, D. Schlumberger, F. Anus, P. Collard, all of them have processed to restore the temples. After Lebanon's independence in , Professor H.

These magical and unique surroundings have quickly attracted the attention of some artists to produce outdoor shows during the summer season. The first show was presented in and a second in , but it was that of , with four plays dance and music of the French Company Jean Marchat, who encouraged the organizers to initiate the "International Festival of Baalbek".

A year later, in , the festival was officially inaugurated by the President of the Lebanese Republic Camille Chamoun. Unfortunately, these events had to suffer the civil war of and its impact on the country. Since , the shows have been restarted, to the great delight of the Lebanese people, enthusiast of all kinds of artistic events.

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Inauguration de la statue d'Ernest Renan

This Label has reinforced the International acknowledgment of this prestigious past and encouraged all new initiatives for restoration and preservation of this exceptional sanctuary. Access to temple of Jupiter, the main temple of Baalbek triad, goes on a majestic entrance consisting of Propylaea and overhanging a monumental staircase The Propylaea form a porch with twelve columns ten have been put back in their place by the German archaeological mission , it is also surrounded by two towers 16 raised above the ground through triangular pediments.

It is accessed by a principal gate, surmounted at past with an arch, and by two other smaller side doors walled up since Roman times. This entrance, with a simple appearance today, was richly decorated. Archaeologists have assumed that on the back wall, voluminous niches were superposed on two levels, alternating decor triangular and rounded pediments, with Corinthian pilasters on the first floor and Ionic pilasters for the second. They might contain busts and sculptures representing famous Roman emperors or some gods of Roman mythology. These various statues were demolished after the installation of Christianity as the official religion of the Empire, specifically within Theodosius reign The entrance to the hexagonal courtyard , through the Propylaea, is ensured by the presence of three doors.

The location and the design of this courtyard, unique in the Roman world, suggest that the Semitic traditions were still observed during the Roman period. It was an intermediate space for the faithful, for reflection and meditation, before approaching the holy of holies, represented here by the sacred enclosure reserved for priests.

This courtyard is surrounded by porches, including four exedras, formerly ornately decorated, which suffered, throughout the various periods of history, the same fate as all other parts of the sanctuary: transformation as a chapel to the Blessed Virgin during the Christian era, or to bastion in the Islamic era In the niche opening onto the great courtyard was placed a bas-relief of the famous Jupiter Heliopolitanus: swaddled with a sheath-dress and wearing a hat shaped flared basket, brandishing lightning in his hand, and surrounded on both sides by bulls; the animal attribute for the Semitic god Baal-Hadad.

The few statues and reliefs found on the site or nearby were removed, and henceforth are to be shared among the greatest museums in the world. The great courtyard is the largest of the sanctuary in dimension, it measures x m. Moreover, it was the liturgical focus of the site. It kept its original Semitic style 17 with a pair of sacrificial altar shaped towers, and two lateral small pools for ablutions.

However, its general appearance was remodeled and solidified by the Romans, who settled large vaulted underground passages to support new most magnificent constructions. This large courtyard was surrounded on three sides by porticos and exedras, alternately rectangular eight in number and semi-circular four , which were covered either by a wooden ceiling or a half-dome of stone. Some archaeologists suggest the presence of two columns on the left and the right of the courtyard, replicating the two pillars Jachin and Boaz at the entrance of the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem.

As for the tower-altar currently under restoration , it is at the center of the courtyard opposite the sanctuary of Jupiter. It allowed the faithful to perceive the god statue deposited in the cella. The small altar was reserved for the officiating priests to present sacrifices.


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In Christian times, the great courtyard was transformed into a basilica dedicated to St. A staircase in three parts on the west side of the courtyard, allows access to the sanctuary , the holy of holies, which incorporated the statue of the god Jupiter Heliopolitanus, dominating the place by its imposing dimensions. From this temple there remains only six columns, each one of a 20m height including base and capital , with a diameter of 2. To establish and comprehend the plan of the temple, archaeologists have compared it to that of the temple of Bacchus, better preserved.

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Catalogue Author s Publishers Selections Excerpts. Jean Honcey Ernest Lavisse Lucien Lazard Louis Liard Alfred Maury Antoine Meillet Sextius Michel Gabriel Monod Gaston Paris Georges Picot Ernest Renan Archibald Henry Sayce Henri Wallon Petre Ciureanu. Piet Desmet. Auguste Longnon Sophie Statius.

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